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segunda-feira, 26 de novembro de 2012

ONU, Uniao Africana, CEDEAO

ASSASSINATOS PUBLICOS EM AFRICA


Ghuinee - Conakry :

 Ha um ano 157 assassinatos em manifestacoes legais e portanto, devidamente autorizadas;

Mocambique:

Ha alguns meses 13 assassintatos em manifestacoes expontaneas


REQUEREM-SE: 


1.  A DIVULGACAO PUBLICA DOS INQUERITOS 


2. QUE AS ORGANIZACOES REGIONAIS E SUPRA-NACIONAIS ASSUMAM AS SUAS RESPONSABILIDADES NO CONCERNENTE A TRANSPARENCIA E APURAMENTO DE RESPONSABILIDADES OPERACIONAIS E POLITICAS DOS REFERIDOS DOCUMENTOS


3. QUE AS FAMILIAS ENLUTADAS SEJAM CONTEMPLADAS COM JUSTAS INDEMNIZACOES A QUE TEEM DIREITO


4. QUE OS PAISES EM CAUSA, SEJAM ALVOS DE UMA SEVERA E PUBLICA REPREENSAO PELA ONU E SUAS CONGENERES REGIONAIS, NO QUE RESPEITA A UTILIZACAO DE ARMAS DE FOGO EM REPRESSAO DE MANIFESTACOES DE CIVIS INDEFESOS.


blufondam
olhos cima dos factos!

terça-feira, 16 de outubro de 2012

GUINE-BISSAU 1 - QUENIA 0

PUBLICACAO DIFERIDA!
Os politicos que metam isto nas suas cabecas:

1.  Nos, os guineenses, nao somos os mais incapazes de Africa;

2.  Nos, os guineeses, homens e mulheres, somos dos mais bem comportados de toda a Africa...

3.  Nos, os guineenses, influenciamos diretamente a libertacao de Portugal atraves do 25 de Abril e, abrimos as portas da liberdade para os nossos irmaos de Cabo Verde - nao obstante, hoje em dia, nao somos convidados para as festas de 05 de Julho :) :);

4.  Nos, os guineenses, indirectamente, abrimos as portas para que os nossos irmaos de Angola, Mocambique e Sao Tome e Principe tambem se libertarem do jugo colonial e fascista Tuga;

5.  Nos, os guineenses, se hoje ninguem nos respeita, sabemos todos que a culpa e de nos proprios, mas sobretudo da qualidade e performance dos nossos politicos...

6.  Nos, os guineenses, precisamos e de acreditar em nos mesmos - um pouco de auto-estima, citando o nosso querido Bispo D. Jose Camnate.

Ha quanto tempo que nao partilhavamos sentimentos comuns como os que estes jovens nos proporcionaram com esta grande victoria sobre o Quenia.
Agora vamos tratar dos "cornos" de Palancas Negras, que nao voltarao a ferir ninguem! :) :).
FORCA GUINEENSES
CONGRATULACOES AO NORTON E SEUS PUPILOS!
PORTEM-SE BEM!

IRodrigues
MUITO CONTENTE!

domingo, 14 de outubro de 2012

ANGOLA ONDE ESTA A DRA MILOCAS PEREIRA?

ANGOLA, ONDE ESTA A JORNALISTA GUINEENSE E PROFESSORA UNIVERSITARIA, DRA MILOCAS PEREIRA?



terça-feira, 9 de outubro de 2012

DR MARIO SOARES, A LICAO CONTINUA!... POREM, ESTE TEXTO ESTA AQUI POR OUTRAS RAZOES: E SE DECIDISSEMOS ADIAR AS ELEICOES PREVISTAS PARA 2013, REMODELANDO O GOVERNO, QUE PASSARIA A SER DIRIGIDO POR UMA FIGURA MAIS CONSENSUAL, COMPETENTE, APARTIDARIA E ISENTA... PORQUE NINGUEM ACREDITA QUE AS CURAS POLITICA E GOVERNATIVA ESTAO NA REALIZACAO DAS ELEICOES. OS PATIDOS TERIAM UM TEMPO UTIL ALARGADO PARA SE ORGANIZAREM, POIS TUDO INDICA QUE ESTAO FALIDOS EM PERSONALIDADES COM CREDIBILIDADE. LEIA E PENSE NISSO!

Mário Soares diz que Portas deve demitir-se "o quanto antes"

09.10.2012 - 08:55 Por Romana Borja-Santos

Soares defende a demissão de Paulo Portas Soares defende a demissão de Paulo Portas (Foto: Daniel Rocha)
O histórico socialista Mário Soares considera que “o Governo está moribundo e ninguém o toma a sério”, e sugere que Paulo Portas deixe de ser ministro rapidamente.

No seu espaço de opinião semanal no Diário de Notícias, o ex-Presidente da República diz que tanto Paulo Portas, como o CDS-PP ficaram “sem saber o que dizer e fazer” perante o anúncio do aumento de impostos e refere um “silêncio envergonhado”. “Portas, por mais que goste de ser ministro, e ao que parece gosta muito, não pode continuar a sê-lo, sem perda total da sua dignidade e prestígio. Deve demitir-se o quanto antes. As sondagens mostram o seu partido a descer, abaixo do PCP e do Bloco de Esquerda”, acrescenta o socialista.

Para Mário Soares, “o Governo está moribundo e ninguém o toma a sério”. Mas o ex-líder socialista rejeita um cenário de eleições antecipadas, sugerindo antes uma intervenção presidencial, dando o exemplo do Presidente italiano que se “livrou” de Berlusconi e nomeou Mario Monti como primeiro-ministro. “Há momentos em que as eleições não se justificam porque não resolverão nada e podem antes complicar muito a situação”, afirma. “Aproxima-se o momento em que [Cavaco Silva] não pode continuar a fazer discursos vazios e que será obrigado a tomar decisões. A não ser que se demita também. Dada a crise profunda do Governo é ao Presidente que compete actuar, por muito que lhe custe”, lê-se na crónica de Soares.

Ainda a propósito das últimas medidas do Governo, Soares lamenta que o recuo de Passos Coelho nas mudanças na taxa social única não signifiquem que tenha “finalmente compreendido que era necessário mudar de rumo”. “Pelo contrário. Resolveu pôr o ministro das Finanças a dizer na Assembleia, com a sua voz tão peculiar, que os impostos vão aumentar imenso e em conjunto a vida dos portugueses – com destaque para a classe média – ia piorar muito. Que falta de sensibilidade política e de vergonha”, afirma. E acrescenta que “a própria troika teme, seriamente, pelo que pode acontecer ao nosso país, no plano social, dado o desespero e a violência crescente nos portugueses”.

O histórico socialista lamenta, ainda, a forma como foram conduzidas as cerimónias do 5 de Outubro, nas quais “o Presidente Cavaco Silva teve a ideia peregrina de excluir o povo da cerimónia”. “Um 5 de Outubro sem povo não faz sentido nenhum. É próprio de uma ditadura, não de um regime que ainda se diz democrático. (...) Quando os governantes (quer sejam ministros, secretários de Estado ou o Presidente da República) manifestam medo do Povo – e fogem dele – algo vai muito mal”, conclui, no mesmo jornal.

Ainda assim, Soares sublinha que “sem partidos não há democracia” e critica algumas das campanhas anti-partidárias que têm sido feitas, reforçando que os “movimentos cívicos não substituem partidos” e devem antes contribuir para melhorar a sua acção.
Fonte: Jornal Publico online/Portugal

quinta-feira, 4 de outubro de 2012

MILOCAS PEREIRA, JORNALISTA GUINEENSE DADA COMO DESAPARECIDA EM LUANDA - ANGOLA

 Quando li a noticia, nem quis acreditar, pois, por ocasiao das celebracoes do dia da independencia nacional - 24 de Setembro de 2012 - devido a sua importancia e interesse, o Blufondam selecionou e publicou a sua entrevista a televisao de Angola, aquando do assassinato de Nino Vieira. A pertinencia da analise quanto as consequencias para o pais e, bem como, um enquadramento da problematica dos quadros nacionais no exterior face as carencias que o pais tem revelado, revelaram uma visao extraordinaria que merece ser partilhada entre os guineenses...

O BLUFONDAM REZARA POR SI PARA QUE VOLTE, O MAIS DEPRESSA POSSIVEL, AO NOSSO CONVIVIO, EM PARTICULAR, DOS SEUS FAMILIARES E AMIGOS DIRETOS!
QUE O SENHOR OICA TODAS AS PRECES DOS QUE LHE CONHECEM E DESEJAM RIGOROSAMENTE, A SUA PRESENCA!

A ESPERANCA E PERSEVERANCA DEVERAO ACOMPANHAR OS FAMILIARES, AMIGOS E CONHECIDOS.

VOLTE E DEPRESSA!
Blufondam 

sábado, 1 de setembro de 2012

SAMIA, HOMENAGEM DE BLUFONDAM

  • Atletismo

O sonho olímpico de Samia Yusuf Omar morreu a caminho de Itália

20.08.2012 - 16:58 Tiago Pimentel

Foto: Reuters
Samia Yusuf Omar tinha 21 anos
O mundo reparou em Samia Yusuf Omar na manhã de 19 de Agosto de 2008: a jovem somali de 17 anos competia nas eliminatórias dos 200m nos Jogos Olímpicos de Pequim. Foi a mais lenta das 52 atletas em prova, com uma marca de 32,16s. Um registo muito mais lento que o recorde do mundo (21,34s), mas mesmo assim suficiente para ser a melhor marca pessoal da velocista somali. E para cumprir o grande objectivo que a tinha levado à capital chinesa: participar nos Jogos Olímpicos.
Os segundos de atenção mediática passaram e Samia regressou à Somália: “Foi uma experiência espectacular. Levei a bandeira da Somália, desfilei com os melhores atletas do mundo”, diria. Quatro anos depois, ninguém deu pela falta de Samia Yusuf Omar em Londres 2012. Agora, chega a notícia de que morreu quando tentava atravessar o Mediterrâneo, de barco, a caminho de Itália.

A história foi inicialmente contada por Igiaba Scego, escritora italiana de origem somali, no blogue do jornal italiano “Pubblico”. E reproduzida por toda a imprensa mundial, como um exemplo do sonho olímpico e dos sacrifícios que um atleta faz para o perseguir. Num vídeo da prestação de Samia Yusuf Omar em Pequim publicado no YouTube, acumulam-se as mensagens de condolências.

Scego cita o ex-atleta Abdi Bile, o primeiro somali a sagrar-se campeão nuns Mundiais de atletismo, em 1987, nos 1500m. “A raparida, Samia, morreu... Morreu por tentar atingir o Ocidente. Tinha apanhado um barco na Líbia, que a devia levar para Itália. Mas não conseguiu. Era uma boa atleta. Uma óptima rapariga”, contou Bile em Mogadíscio.

Citado pelo diário espanhol “El País”, o treinador da atleta somali, Mustafa Abdelaziz, conta que Samia Yusuf Omar continuou sempre a treinar-se no Estádio Olímpico de Mogadíscio para conseguir um lugar em Londres 2012. Falhado esse objectivo, a jovem apostou em chegar à Europa de maneira a ter condições de treino. E assim seguir o exemplo de outro somali: Mo Farah, nascido na Somália e campeão olímpico nos 5000m e 10.000m em Londres 2012, pela Grã-Bretanha.

Conta ainda o “El País” que a mãe de Samia terá vendido um pequeno terreno que tinha para pagar a viagem à filha. A velocista era a mais velha de seis irmãos, tendo já perdido o pai na guerra que há décadas assola o país do corno de África.

“Estamos felizes pelo Mo [Farah], é o nosso orgulho. Mas não esquecemos a Samia”, resumiu Abdi Bile. Duas vidas, dois sonhos, dois finais tão diferentes.

Fonte: Jornal Publico Online

terça-feira, 28 de agosto de 2012

RACHEL, RACHEL, RACHEL TINHA APENAS 23 ANOS DE IDADE E ERA UMA PESSOA CONVITA DA SUA ACAO. QUAL ESTADISTA DO MUNDO ESTARA EM ALTURA DOS PROBLEMAS DESTES DOIS POVOS - ISRAELITA E PALESTINIANO? QUANTAS MAIS VIDAS SERAO NECESSARIAS PARA SE LIQUIDAR A GUERRA NAO ASSUMIDA? TU ESTARAS PARA SEMPRE, NA GLORIA E NO CORACAO DOS JUSTOS DO MUNDO! "YOUR PARENTS ARE NOT ALONE"!...

Tao jovem, tanta conviccao!...
Israel court clears army in Rachel Corrie death
HAIFA, Israel — An Israeli court on Tuesday cleared the military of any responsibility for the death of US activist Rachel Corrie who was killed by an army bulldozer in 2003, rejecting a civil suit filed by her family.
The ruling sparked an angry reaction from the Corrie family, with Rachel's mother, Cindy Corrie, accusing the Israeli authorities of a cover-up.
"The state has worked extremely hard to make sure that the full truth about what happened to my daughter is not exposed and that those responsible for the killing are not held accountable," she told reporters after the hearing.
And a British peace activist who witnessed her death first hand, insisted it was "inconceivable" that the driver of the bulldozer did not see her, as found by the judge.
"I reached the conclusion that there was no negligence on the part of the bulldozer driver," said Judge Oded Gershon at the District Court in the northern city of Haifa.
Corrie's death, he said, was the result of "an accident she brought upon herself."
"The deceased put herself into a dangerous situation, she stood in front of a giant bulldozer in a place where the operator could not see her. She did not distance herself as a reasonable person would have done," he said.
According to eyewitness accounts, the 23-year-old was killed by a military bulldozer in Rafah in the southern Gaza Strip on March 16, 2003.
At the time, she was acting as a human shield with a group of activists from the pro-Palestinian International Solidarity Movement to prevent troops from demolishing a house.
The verdict echoed the findings of an internal investigation by the Israeli military in 2003 which was concluded just four weeks after her death and cleared troops of any responsibility, saying the bulldozer crew did not see Corrie.
Following the hearing, the family vowed to appeal to the Supreme Court.
"The verdict is based upon distorted facts and could have been written by the state's attorney," their lawyer Hussein Abu Hussein told reporters as Corrie's father Craig stood by stony-face while her mother looked heartbroken and close to tears, an AFP correspondent said.
Cindy Corrie said the family was "deeply saddened and deeply troubled" over the verdict.
"We believe that Rachel's death could and should have been avoided," said the white-haired American, her voice breaking with emotion. "We knew from the beginning that a civil suit would be an uphill battle.
"This was a bad day, not only for the family, but a bad day for human rights, for humanity, for the rule of law and for the country of Israel," she said.
Tom Dale, a former ISM activist who was 10 metres (33 feet) away when Corrie was crushed, insisted it was not possible that the driver did not see her.
"On 16 March 2003, Rachel could not have been more visible: standing, on a clear day, in the open ground, wearing a high-visibility vest," he said in a statement emailed to AFP.
"It is inconceivable that at some point the driver did not see her, given the distance from which he approached, while she stood, unmoving, in front of it.
"Just before she was crushed, Rachel briefly stood on top of the rolling mound of earth which had gathered in front of the bulldozer: her head was above the level of the blade, and just a few metres from the driver."
Anyone familiar with the situation in the occupied Palestinian territories was unlikely to be surprised by this verdict, "which reflects a long-standing culture of impunity for the Israeli military," he said.
Craig Corrie expressed similar sentiments.
"We've seen from the highest levels of the military that they thought they could kill people on that border with impunity," he said.
The family first launched their civil action in 2005, for a symbolic sum of $1, plus costs, but court hearings only began in March 2010.
Senior Palestinian official Hanan Ashrawi denounced the verdict as "a miscarriage of justice" and said the judge had ignored "overwhelming proof that Rachel was deliberately murdered."
"This proves that once again, the occupation has distorted the legal and judicial systems in Israel, and that the lack of accountability for its violence and violations has generated a culture of hate and impunity," Ashrawi said in a strongly-worded statement.
She also lashed out at Washington over its "deafening" silence on the matter, saying it made the US administration complicit in Israel's crimes.
"In their lack of engagement and human empathy, both the legislative and executive branches are complicit in compounding the crime," Ashrawi charged.
Fawzi Barhoum, a spokesman for Hamas which currently rules the Gaza Strip, told AFP that "we in Hamas severely condemn this unjust Zionist decision that exonerates murderers. It would be a victory for the wild crimes perfected by its soldiers and leaders."
A spokesman for Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu called Corrie's death "an unnecessary tragedy," but said the court ruled in accordance with the evidence that "the Israeli side was not responsible, and on the contrary, if there was irresponsible behaviour -- it was by the activists."
He also rejected the criticism leveled by Corrie's family against the Israeli legal system.
"Though I understand their pain, their criticisms of the Israeli justice system are not objective and are not factual," he said. "In Israel the judiciary is fiercely independent, there are numerous cases where the judicial branch rules against the executive branch."
Corrie was killed at the height of the second intifada, or uprising (2000-2005) and quickly became an symbol of foreign support for the Palestinian cause and the subject of a 2005 play based on her emails and diary.

sábado, 25 de agosto de 2012

AO ABDU, VOTOS DE SUCESSOS E BOA SORTE NA SUA NOVA FUNCAO. PRESTE ESPECIAL ATENCAO AO `TEAM`! NAO SERA FACIL, MAS TAMBEM, NAO E UMA MISSAO IMPOSSIVEL. FORCA GUINE-BISSAU!

Guiné-Bissau: Procurador-Geral da República exonerado do cargo
Bissau – Segundo a agência Lusa, o Presidente de Transição, Serifo
Nhamadjo, destituiu o Procurador-Geral da República, Edmundo Mendes, nomeando Adbu Mané para o seu lugar.
A medida foi comunicada por decreto, o qual não justifica as razões que levaram o Presidente a nomear um novo Procurador-Geral da República.
No documento, Serifo Nhamadjo diz ter reunido com o Governo antes de tomar a decisão de destituir o jurista, que estava no cargo desde 2001.
Edmundo Mendes foi nomeado pelo falecido Presidente Malam Bacai Sanhá.
(c) PNN Portuguese News Network
2012-08-24 17:25:25

sexta-feira, 17 de agosto de 2012

QUE HAJA CORAGEM E VONTADE POLITICA NA PROCURA DO CONSENSO DE QUE CARECEMOS URGENTEMENTE!

A arrogancia e oportunismo empobrecem o homem no seu convivio com outros homens. imaginando-se um extra-terrestre, mas que nao passa disso mesmo, uma imaginacao. Este facto, pode constituir, no entanto, um serio obstaculo a sua evolucao natural e pode ainda colocar em risco, mais cedo ou mais tarde, a sua propria vida.
A acumulacao de problemas e pequenos conflitos em resultado da evolucao desse tipo de comportamento pode afetar muito mais gente, quando o sujeito e politico e titular de cargos publicos. Essa forma de sentir e viver o seu dia-a-dia, dificulta-o na obtencao de cooperacao tanto na linha horizontal como na vertical, no seu meio natural e no desempenho da sua funcao publica, mas tambem, como acima se referiu, junto de outros homens que nao do seu circulo.
VOCE NAO PODE SER GESTOR DE COISA ALGUMA E MUITO MENOS DE PATRIMONIO PUBLICO!
VOE PARA MARTE E TENTE DE NOVO!...
  1. Nao foram os Senhores que cometeram o Golpe de Estado na Rep. da Guine-Bissau, e nem sequer defendem essa forma de acesso ao poder na nossa republica;
  2. Qual a razao porque ainda nao se verificaram os necessarios contatos com o partido que se julga lesado - o unico lesado - com o Golpe de Estado de 01 de Abril de 2012?
  3. Com o nivel gritante da dependencia economica e social do nosso pais, como havemos de suprimir os recursos normalmente, provinientes da Uniao Europeia, Banco Mundial, Banco Africano para o Desenvolvimento, Portugal, Brasil, Angola, etc. etc? A regra e simples e contundente: "Se se e dependente entao, tem que se admitir - direta ou indiretamente - a ingerencia de terceiros, de cujos recursos se beneficia, nos seus assuntos internos". Isto acontece independentemente, do conhecimento das potencialidades em termos da existencia de petroleo, ouro e/ou diamantes no seu territorio nacional - recursos que poderao vir a ser uteis no seu incessante processo na procura da independencia nacional. A grande questao e a satisfacao das necessidades actuais das populacoes!
  4. Estamos na Terra meus Senhores! Aqui, as fantasias comportamentais (arrogancia e oportunismo politico) sao "bolas-de-neve". Pois, mais horas menos horas, acabarao por se desfazer, deixando um grande, mas nao surpreendente, vazio no centro da sua palma da mao;
  5. Enganemo-nos a nos proprios ao assumirmos protagonismos de gestao pura e independente do nosso pais, porque nem na forma e muito menos na substancia somos independentes - isto, independentemente de todo o mundo reconhecer a nossa identidade comunitaria e territorial. Aqui e o Planeta Terra! Nao estamos no Marte - que somente a NASA sabe contar como as coisas se passam por ai!...
Esta ausencia de iniciativas em torno de consensos necessarios e exigidos pela Comunidade Internacional, por parte do Governo de Transicao, nao pode ser justificado com a defesa dos interesses do nosso povo - o unico perdedor e que voltara a perder em caso de a contenda politica se desembocar em conflito efetivo pelo controlo dos orgaos do poder. E, igualmente, nem pelas birras do partido P.A.I.G.C., que se sente e diz-se lesado com o Golpe de Estado de 01 de Abril de 2012.

Milhoes e milhoes de Dolares/Euros continuam adiados por causa de atitudes governativas improprias e por isso mesmo, prejudiciais aos interesses nacionais nas varias vertentes. Ao mesmo tempo, descobrem-se salarios exorbitantes e "djunda-djunda" no exercicio das funcoes governativas.

Quem estara em condicoes de defender quem neste conflito politico "frio" na Guine-Bissau?

Deveria haver consenso imediato no sentido de possibilitar o envolvimento do partido P.A.I.G.C. neste Governo de Transicao por forma a aliviar a pressao externa de carater negativo sobre a nossa economia e sociedade, cumprindo quer para com as exigencias de importantes e indispensaveis parceiros de desenvolvimento da Republica da Guine-Bissau e quer para com a `Estrategia de Inclusao`anunciado e patente no Programa do Governo de Transicao.

Agora sim, em prol do interesse nacional!

Nada, mas mesmo nada, impedira tanto a historia, como a justica, de prosseguirem os seus caminhos - a exemplo do que se passou na Africa do Sul!...

Com saudacao fraternal a todos, sem excecoes,
Blufondam
Pelo dialogo e consensos necessarios na sociedade guineense - que nao nos falte a coragem!  

quinta-feira, 16 de agosto de 2012

CRIMES DE SANGUE NA GUINE-BISSAU - OH MAE!

Sombra di cuco na-no cabeca! Toda a verdade!!!
"DOKA INTERNACIONAL - TODA A VERDADE" ESTA, NESTE PRECISO MOMENTO, A AGUARDAR PELA REACAO DE UMA E DISTINTA PERSONALIDADE DA CULTURA GUINEENSE, CUJO NOME CONSTA NA `LISTA DE SUSPEITOS` CARASCOS DO SR. DR. NICANDRO PEREIRA BARRETO.

OH MAE GUINE!
"Teus braços sempre se abrem
quando preciso um abraço.,
Teu coração sabe compreender
quando preciso uma amiga,
                          Teus olhos sensíveis se endurecem                          
quando preciso uma lição,
Tua força e teu amor me dirigiram pela vida
E me deram as asas que precisava para voar"

A SUA FORCA E CORAGEM, MEU CARO, MOSTRAM O VIGOR DA SUA EDUCACAO, MAS MAIS DO QUE ISSO, REVELAM O QUANTO AMAS E SERAS CAPAZ EM PROL DO SEU PROXIMO.

QUE DEUS, EM COMUNHAO COM TODA A FAMILIA, LHE PROTEJA COM O SEU MANTO SAGRADO! 

A GUINE PRECISA DE MUITOS MAIS "DOKAS" PARA SE VOLTAR A ERGUER E ENFRENTAR OS GRANDES DESAFIOS QUE AINDA TEM PELA FRENTE. POREM, AONDE ESTAO?

Permita-me enderecar-lhe estas palavras e salientar a grandeza da sua alma enquanto filho da Mae Guine! 
Tive uma sensacao de dever para consigo, tendo em consideracao os trabalhos que tem vindo a desenvolver ao longo de anos a esta parte. Merece ser louvado e incentivado, mas tambem protegido!...


Estamos juntos,
Blufondam
Perturbando certas almas!
 

sábado, 11 de agosto de 2012

QUE DEUS LHE ABENCOE, LHE ILUMINE OS CAMINHOS NA CONDUCAO DOS DESTINOS DO POVO AMERICANO - UMA GRANDE RESPONSABILIDADE!

Obama à frente nas sondagens a três meses das presidenciais nos EUA

A três meses das presidenciais nos Estados Unidos, as sondagens dão vantagem a Barack Obama sobre Mitt Romney. As últimas sondagens atribuem ao actual presidente 49 por cento das intenções de voto e 42 por cento ao candidato republicano.

Fonte: RTP.PT

sexta-feira, 10 de agosto de 2012

UK / GUINEA-BISSAU and LONDON 2012

Equipe olímpica da Guiné-Bissau recebido pelo parlamento britânico


image.png parlamento Británico
All-Party Parliamentary Group for Guinea-Bissau
United Kingdom Parliament
Palace of Westminster
London SW1A 0AA
United Kingdom
COMUNICADO A IMPRENSA
10 de agosto 2012
Londres, Reino Unido

Equipe olímpica da Guiné-Bissau recebido pelo parlamento britânico

Thompson : “Um futuro compartilhado é a medalha de ouro de todos os povos guineenses”

Ontem, membros da delegação olímpica da Guiné-Bissau foram recebidos no Parlamento britânico pelo seu Grupo Suprapartidário Parlamentar do Reino Unido para Guiné-Bissau.

Em novembro de 2011, o Grupo organizou a primeira visita oficial de parlamentares guineenses na história. Guiné-Bissau e Reino Unido têm também uma forte relação sobre a Reconciliação Nacional.
"Nossa solidariedade com o povo guineense não deve ser apenas política e econômica, mas também cultural. Esporte é uma forte maneira de unir as pessoas - não só ingleses e guineense, mas também guineense e guineense", explicou Peter Thompson, que era o chefe de observação das eleições presidenciais em Bissau para o Reino Unido este ano, e tem participado nos esforços para consolidar a reconciliação nacional com a Assembleia Nacional Popular em Bissau.

Ele comentou que o povo guineense devem trabalhar para construir o seu país com o espírito de uma equipe olímpica. "O povo da Guiné é uma equipe de 1,6 milhão de pessoas ambiciosas e talentoso, e sua medalha de ouro será um futuro compartilhado", disse Thompson. “Os líderes políticos devem ser inspirado pelo poderoso exemplo de determinação manifestada por esses atletas.”
Atletas e funcionários da equipe guineense teve um pequeno-almoço típico britânico no Palácio de Westminster, o histórico edifício do parlamento britânico com o seu famoso relógio "Big Ben".

domingo, 5 de agosto de 2012

LONDON 2012 - Holder ESTA PRESENTE e correu ao lado do "Homen Vento", USAIN BOLT. Significa isto que, se conseguissemos dissipar as "Nuvens Negras" que pairam sobre nos, os nossos jovens seriam capazes de muito mais, ir mais alem!

Holder da Silva

Country   Guinea-BissauGuinea-Bissau

Birth date and place
Age
12/01/1988 - Bissau (GBS) 
   24
Height
Weight
Gender
181 cm / 5'11" 
75 kg / 165 lbs 
   M
Sport
DA SILVA Holder Holder Ocante da Silva mal sabia o que eram blocos de partida quando passou por Portugal há sete anos, hoje está na Aldeia Olímpica, orgulhoso pela presença nos Jogos Londres’2012 e triste pela ausência da "referência" Francis Obikwelu.

"O Francis é o meu ídolo. Eu estava lá quando ele se lesionou. Tenho muita pena que ele não esteja cá", disse à Lusa o atleta da Guiné-Bissau, que vai correr os 100 metros, apesar de não ter alcançado mínimos, sendo um dos contemplados com "wild cards" para países sem atletas qualificados.

A viver em Portugal desde 2006 e atualmente a representar o Belenenses, Holder seguia a carreira de Francis Obikwelu pela televisão na Guiné e foi assim que vibrou com a medalha de prata olímpica alcançada pelo português em 2004, mas "há seis ou sete anos" teve oportunidade de conhecê-lo, tal como a Arnaldo Abrantes, o representante português nos 200 metros.

"Francis e o Arnaldo Abrantes são referências. Num estágio em que fui a Lisboa, em 2005, eu nem sabia montar nos blocos. Eles ofereceram-me uns ténis, as coisas de outro 'team' e quando cheguei à Guiné meti aquilo na cabeça. Apanhei uma bolsa olímpica, fui para o Senegal, consegui começar a correr em 10,70 e tal, cheguei a Portugal, comecei a correr com 10,45 e depois fiz 10,36, que é melhor marca que eu tenho", contou.

Fonte: Jornal Record online / Portugal 

RESULTADOS

Heat 4
Wind (m/s): +0.4
Official
RkBibAthleteMark

+
12170 Jamaica BOLT Usain10.09 Q +
21016 Antigua and Barbuda BAILEY Daniel10.12 Q +
31805 Great Britain DASAOLU James10.13 QSB +
41589 Egypt SEOUD Amr Ibrahim Mostafa10.22 SB +
52923 Saint Kitts and Nevis ROGERS Jason10.30 +
62567 Nigeria EGWERO Ogho-Oghene10.38 +
71882 Guinea-Bissau DA SILVA Holder10.71 +

1405 Cameroon ADAM IdrissaDNF
+

quarta-feira, 1 de agosto de 2012

OS COMPUTADORES DA PAZ

 ATUALIZADO
"03 de Agosto, DIA DI DISGUSTO"
Num muito conturbado e instavel mundo em que vivemos, uma "atempada adaptacao as mudancas" e a estrategia (provavelmente, a unica estrategia) certa e que, portanto, de utilidade nao duvidosa para a gestao... Ora, isso implica e/ou esta dependente da "visao" dos gestores - que pode condicionar e constituir o elemento-chave da competitividade...
Quer se queira quer nao, esta agora mais que evidente, que os apoios em torno do Sr. Carlos Gomes Junior, sao mais que suficientes para, dependendo da respetiva vontade pessoal, que a Guine-Bissau se envolva numa guerra fratricida pelo poder - voluntarios, nesse caso, nao faltarao para ambos os lados.
As fragilidades das nossas estruturas militar e policial, torna-as permeaveis a manipulacoes de toda a ordem nomeadamente, atravez de fatores suscetiveis de avalicao pecuniaria. Inegaveis realidades passiveis de favorecer a concretizacao de um `contra-golpe` ou simplesmente, guerra que, no minimo, podera dividir o pais.
As informacoes existentes sao suficientes e estao ao alcance de toda a gente. 
Estaremos todos a espera que isso aconteca para podermos `pensar` em acao para a paz?

AO GOVERNO DE TRANSICAO FACO AQUI O NECESSARIO APELO PARA CUMPRIR COM A PLANEADA ESTRATEGIA POLITICA DE INCLUSAO E QUE SEJA ABRANGENTE! 
COMPLETAMENTE A PARTE, SAO OS TRABALHOS DOS AGENTES DA JUSTICA. AQUELE DE ENTRE NOS, QUE TIVER "RABO DE PALHA" SO TERA UMA SAIDA; RESPONDER PERANTE A JUSTICA E SOMENTE A JUSTICA!
VAMOS LEVANTAR A NOSSA PATRIA QUE NAO FALTARAO AMIGOS PARA AJUDAR NAQUILO QUE FOR PRECISO! 
AO CARLITOS PEDE-SE CONTENCAO E MUITA RESERVA NAS PALAVRAS E NO COMPORTAMENTO!

Uma das carateristicas fundamentais da gestao moderna, e a capacidade de antecipacao as mudancas. Mais uma vez, a `visao` dos gestores fara toda a diferenca, atraves da analise e interpretacao dos fatos,  consequentemente, permitindo-lhes gerir satisfatoriamente, o presente e projetar o futuro com niveis de probabilidades admissiveis.

EIS A DIFERENCA! 

Sob o lema "todos contam para a edificacao de uma "Nova Guine-Bissau", faco aqui um apelo aos incansaveis e distintos "bloguistas" guineenses!...

Da mesma forma que abandonei a defesa da reposicao da legalidade constitucional na Guine-Bissau, por razoes de interesse nacional face a nova realidade apos golpe de estado, pelas mesmas razoes, por interesse nacional, venho reconhecer estas novas necessidades para que a Republica da Guine-Bissau possa sair do "atalho politico":

- UMA OPORTUNIDADE A REUNIFICACAO DA FAMILIA GUINEENSE;
- COM PROMESSA DE DISCUSSAO FRANCA E DENTRO DA REP. DA GUINE-BISSAU, DE TODOS OS PROBLEMAS QUE NOS TEM AFETADO E DE QUE MANEIRA;
- PROMESSA DE CONSTITUICAO DE UMA "COMISSAO PARA A "VERDADE, PAZ E RECONCILIACAO" - A SEMELHANCA DOS ACONTECIMENTOS DE AFRICA DO SUL E TIMOR LESTE;
- A INCLUSAO NA COMISSAO, DOS ACIMA REFRIDOS BLOGUISTAS GUINEENSES E IMPORTANTES E DESTACADOS QUADROS GUINEENSES NA EUROPA OCIDENTAL E NOS E.U.A.;
- VENHAM DAI MAIS IDEIAS QUE NAO SERAO DEMAIS!...

Porque, nao obstante aos consideraveis esforcos do Governo de Transicao, e minha convicao de que dificilmente, conseguira otimizar a dinamica nacional com esta inegavel divisao entre "pros e contras" GOPLPE em que se mergulhou o pais. Situacao cujo impato tambem se faz sentir a nivel internacional, atravez de um autentico "braco-de-ferro" entre os historicos e sempre presentes - em todas as circunstancias - paises amigos da Republica da Guine-Bissau, com desenvolvimentos muito graves na ultima reuniao do Concelho de Seguranca da O.N.U.

O UNICO PERDEDOR E E SERA SEMPRE A GUINE-BISSAU, A NOSSA PATRIA AMADA!

Os bloguistas, que tambem se encontram divididos, teem agora a oportunidade de marcar os pontos para uma efetiva e positiva diferenciacao a favor de, nem de uns e nem de outros, mas sim da Republica da Guine-Bissau.

O Mundo esta a espera que os filhos da Guine-Bissau se entendam, assumam as suas responsabilidades no processo para a paz e reconciliacao... Para poder ajudar - sublinho a palavra "ajudar".
E chegado a hora de dar aquele passo rumo a destruicao da precariedade politica em que nos mergulhamos. Vamos ajudar a erguer as "grandes" e adormecidas - nem tanto, porque tambem choram em cada vez que a Guine-Bissau sofre - inteletualidades guineenses, e confronta-las com a necessidade de activa/viva participacao neste processo - porque a situacao em que se encontra o nosso pais, nao se coaduna com a apatia e enercia de muitas delas nos confortos (por vezes nem por isso) da Europa e da America.

Por ultimo, encontrar o apoio, de toda a ordem, nomeadamente, logistico e financeiro, a partir da responsavel da O.N.U. para "Estrategias de Paz para a Guine-Bissau", representante do governo brasileiro no Conselho de Seguranca, e os demais organismos e paises envolvidos no processo de paz e reconciliacao da Guine-Bissau (ONU, PNUD,Uniao Africana, Uniao Europeia, CDEAO, CPLP, Portugal, Angola, etc. etc.).

ESTA-SE A AVANCAR CONTRA O ODIO E POSSIVEIS SENSACOES DE VINGANCAS QUE PODEM VIR A DESTRUIR DEFINITIVAMENTE O NOSSO PAIS, COM CONSEQUENCIAS GRAVES PARA O FUTURO DA NOSSA NACAO.

UMA NOVA OPORTUNIDADE A PAZ, PROGRESSO E DESENVOLVIMENTO - COM UM EFETIVO "ENTERRO" DO PASSADO, PERMITINDO A CONCENTRACAO DE TODOS OS RECURSOS NA EDIFICACAO DE UMA "NOVA GUINE-BISSAU"!

A CRIACAO DE CONDICOES PARA A IMPLEMENTACAO DO DIALOGO ENTRE GUINEENSES, POR VARIAS RAZOES, DIFICILMENTE  VIRA DE FILHOS QUE LA SE ENCONTRAM E MUITO MENOS DE AMIGOS ESTRANGEIROS DE BOA-VONTADE!

PENSE NISSO!

O Blufondam estara disponivel para a indisponibilizacao virtual de todos os textos que possam estar a ferir, tanto o necessario espirito, como a propria persecucao destes objetivos!

QUE VENHAM DAI MAIS IDEIAS!

SE ALGUMA COISA FALHAR, NAO SERA COM CERTEZA, POR AUSENCIA DE INTELIGENCIA HUMANA!

FINALMENTE, TROUXE PARA VOSSA CONSIDERACAO AS LICOES DE LULA DA SILVA:

Lula promete ajudar Guiné-Bissau quando o país "resolver os seus problemas"

05.07.2010 - 11:34 Por Jorge Heitor
O Presidente brasileiro, Luís Inácio Lula da Silva, e a Comunidade Económica dos Estados da África Ocidental (CEDEAO) juntaram-se nos últimos dias aos países que têm vindo a criticar a evolução política e militar da Guiné-Bissau.

“Nós queremos ajudar, mas para que o Brasil possa ajudar é preciso que os guineenses resolvam os seus problemas”, disse em Cabo Verde Lula da Silva, no início de uma viagem por diferentes países africanos.
Brasília só prestará ajuda económica à Guiné-Bissau quando ela resolver os seus problemas internos, afirmou o Presidente, depois de uma cimeira que manteve na ilha do Sal com os membros da CEDEAO.

“Saibam os dirigentes guineenses que quanto mais divergências tiverem, quanto mais brigas internas tiverem, mais dificuldades terão em receber apoio, sobretudo dos países mais desenvolvidos”, prosseguiu Lula, na linha do que têm vindo a dizer os Estados Unidos e a União Europeia.

Aqueles dirigentes precisam “adquirir maturidade”, sublinhou o Presidente brasileiro, que se recusou a ir a Bissau, depois de o chefe do levantamento militar de 1 de Abril, general António Indjai, ter sido nomeado no fim de Junho Chefe do Estado-Maior das Forças Armadas.

Fim.

LEIA TAMBEM,
CONSELHO DE SEGURANCA DA ONU:

 http://uniogbis.unmissions.org/Default.aspx?tabid=9874&ctl=Details&mid=12838&ItemID=19261&language=en-US

Blufondam
"Com os dois olhos na Guine-Bissau"

domingo, 24 de junho de 2012

BLUFONDAM ESTA DE LUTO

xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
TERRAMOTOS NO MEU CORACAO E NA MINHA ALMA!

Elisio Bento de Carvalho!
xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
Como?
Quando?
Porque?
Aonde?

Custa-me digerir isto!!!

domingo, 10 de junho de 2012

EURO 2012: FORCA PORTUGAL

Portugal 0 - Alemanha 1

ONTEM, APESAR DE MAIS TIMIDA DO QUE POBRE ATITUDE DOS JOGADORES NO DESAFIO CONTRA A ALEMANHA DURANTE A PRIMEIRA PARTE, PORTUGAL VIRIA A IMPOR-SE E DESTA FORMA, COMPENSAR OS ADETOS COM UMA POSTURA BRILHANTE NA SEGUNDA PARTE... ESTAMOS A FALAR DE ALEMANHA :).

SEM MARGENS PARA DUVIDAS QUE PAULO BENTO MERECE UMA PALAVRA DE CONFORTO:

`VOCE PODERIA TER SAIDO DESTE ENCONTRO COM UM EMPATE, NO MINIMO. FALTOU, FOI A SORTE!... MAS O CAMPEONATO ESTA NA FASE QUE TODOS SABEMOS, E QUE, PORTANTO, TUDO AINDA E POSSIVEL. FORCA PORTUGAL`!

VI OS SEUS OLHOS E LEMBREI-ME DO `VELHO DO RESTELO`: VOCE DORMIU MUITO MAL NA NOITE QUE PRECEDEU AO ENCONTRO COM A ALEMANHA. POR FAVOR RELAXE-SE! VOCE CHEGOU AONDE ESTA DEVIDOS AOS SEUS PROPRIOS E DISTINTOS PERFORMANCES - POR MERITO PROPRIO E DE SEUS PUPILOS - EM TRABALHO DE EQUIPA, CLARO!

BOA SORTE!
Blufondam

quinta-feira, 10 de maio de 2012

BROTHERS AND SISTERS BE CAREFUL!!!

Who's Spying on Your Computer:

Spyware, Surveillance and Safety for Survivors.

© 2007 NNEDV Safety Net Project [Revised 2008]
Web: nnedv.org/safetynet 􀁹 Email: safetynet [at] nnedv.org 􀁹 Phone: 202-543-5566

Simply type "spy on girlfriend" into any search engine, and instantly see listings and links advertising easy-to-install computer Spyware programs and devices that can be used to “spy on a lover, girlfriend, boyfriend, partner, husband or wife and secretly record computer activities to catch a cheating spouse.”

WHAT IS SPYWARE?

Spyware, is a computer software program or hardware device that enables an unauthorized person (such as an abuser) to secretly monitor and gather information about your computer use.

There are many types of computer software programs and hardware devices that can be installed to monitor your computer activities. They can be installed on your computer without your knowledge, and the person installing them doesn’t even need to have physical access to your computer. Whether computer monitoring is legal or illegal depends on the state you live in, and the context in which it is installed and used. Regardless of the legality, Spyware is invasive, intrusive, and may put victims in grave danger.

Spyware programs are sometimes marketed as ways to monitor your children or your employees. As an employer, it is always best to have your employees read and sign a “Technology Use Policy.” This policy should explain allowable uses of company property, expectations of online behavior, and TELL employees if their computer will be monitored.

Additionally, choose a software package that displays an icon to remind your employees that they’re being monitored.

(* Also - see note to parents at the end of this piece).

There are some similarities and differences between Spyware and its close relatives.. For example:

• Adware: These are hidden marketing programs that deliver advertising to consumers, and might also profile users’ Internet surfing & shopping habits. Adware is often bundled or hidden in something else a user downloads. Most average computer users are infected with adware fairly regularly, and common symptoms include a sluggish system and lots of advertising pop-ups.

• Malware: This is any program that tries to install itself or damage a computer system without the owner’s consent. Malware includes viruses, worms, spyware and adware.

For more information on adware and malware, see “Protecting Your Computer“ at

http://www.antispywarecoalition.org/documents/documents/ProtectingYourComputerflyerletter.pdf

Who's Spying on Your Computer?

Spyware, Surveillance, and Safety for Survivors

SAFETY ALERT: While stalking is an age‐old crime, Spyware has made it easier than ever before for perpetrators to stalk, track, monitor, and harass their victims. Abusers, stalkers and other perpetrators can now use Spyware to secretly monitor what you do on your computer or handheld device, like a cell phone. If you suspect you are being stalked or monitored, be aware that:

• Attempting to look for spyware on your computer or handheld/phone could be dangerous since the abuser could be alerted to your searches immediately

• Use a safer computer or handheld device (one that the stalker does not have remote or physical access to) to perform Internet searches or send emails that you wouldn’t want an abuser to intercept

• If you want to preserve evidence of Spyware on your computer, contact your local police, a
domestic violence hotline, a trained victim advocate, or Safety Net to learn what to do.

Who's Spying on Your Computer:
Spyware, Surveillance and Safety for Survivors.

HOW DOES SPYWARE WORK?

Spyware can keep track of every keystroke you type, every software application you use, every website you visit, every chat or instant message you send, every document you open, and everything you print. Some spyware gives the abuser the ability to freeze, shutdown or restart your computer. Some versions even allow the abuser to remotely turn on your webcam or make your computer talk.

Once Spyware is installed, it can run in stealth mode and is difficult to detect or uninstall. If the person who installed it has physical access to your computer, he or she can use a special key combination that will cause a log-in screen to pop-up. After entering the password, an options screen will pop up that allows the installer to view all of the computer activity since their last login, including emails you sent, documents printed, websites visited, and more. Perpetrators without physical access to your computer can set the spyware to take pictures of the computer screen (screen shots) every few seconds and have these pictures sent to them over the Internet without a victim’s knowledge.

HOW DOES IT GET ON MY COMPUTER?
Abusers can install Spyware on your computer if they have physical or Internet access to your computer or handheld device. Some abusers might hack into your computer from another location via the Internet. Some might send spyware to you as an attached file that automatically installs itself when you open the email or when you initially view it in a preview window. Others may email or instant message a greeting card, computer game, or other ruse in order to entice you or your children to open an attachment or click on a link. Once opened, the program automatically installs spyware on the victim’s computer, in stealth mode without notification or consent, and can then send electronic reports to the perpetrator via the Internet.

While most spyware is software based (a program that can be installed on your computer), there are also some hardware-based spyware devices called keystroke loggers. These tiny keylogging devices may appear to be a normal computer part. However, once the keylogger is plugged into your computer, it can record every key typed, capturing all passwords, personal identification numbers (PIN), websites visited, and any emails sent onto its small hard drive.

Additionally, there are keyboards with keystroke logging capabilities built-in.

Note: Remember that many handheld devices are mini-computers. There are now spyware programs available for cell phones and other handheld devices, so that the perpetrator can track every text message sent and every phone number dialed. (note: phone records can also be obtained by non-spyware methods, such as guessing your account password and accessing your account on the phone company website, or by viewing your call history stored in the phone.)

HOW DO I FIND OUT IF THERE’S SPYWARE ON MY COMPUTER?

• If your computer is currently being monitored it may be dangerous to try to research spyware or use antispyware scanners. If your computer is compromised, spyware will log all of this research activity and alert the perpetrator.

• If you suspect that someone has installed spyware to monitor your activities, talk to a victim advocate before attempting to remove the spyware. Law enforcement or a computer forensics expert may be able to assist you if you want to preserve vidence that may be needed for a criminal investigation.

Who's Spying on Your Computer: Spyware, Surveillance and Safety for Survivors.

Spyware typically runs in stealth mode using disguised file names so it can be extraordinarily difficult to detect spyware programs that are already on your computer.

While your computer is being monitored by Spyware there might be no noticeable changes in the way your computer operates (i.e. your computer won't necessarily slow down or freeze up). Also, like computer viruses, there are hundreds of Spyware programs. So while some are created by large software companies, other spyware programs are written by individual “hackers”.

There are a variety of programs marketed as Anti-Spyware detectors that primarily identify Adware and Malware, but may not discover surveillance Spyware. Additionally, anti-spyware detection programs typically does not detect hardware, like keystroke loggers.

If you think there may be spyware on your computer, consider the tips below:

TIPS FOR SURVIVORS OF ABUSE

• If you use the monitored computer to try to research spyware or try to access anti-spyware scanners, spyware will log all of this activity and alert the perpetrator which could be dangerous.

• Try to use a safer computer when you look for domestic or sexual violence resources. It may be safer to use a computer at a public library, community center, or Internet café.

• If you suspect that anyone abusive can access your email or Instant Messaging (IM), consider creating additional email/IM accounts on a safer computer. Do not create or check new email/IM accounts from a computer that might be monitored. Look for free web-based email accounts, and strongly consider using nonidentifying name & account information. (example: bluecat@email.com and not YourRealName@email.com)

Also, make sure to carefully read the registration screens so you can choose not to be listed in any online directories.

• Be suspicious if someone abusive has installed a new keyboard, cord, or software, or recently or done computer repair work that coincides with an increase of stalking or monitoring.

• If you are thinking about buying a new computer, there are steps you can take to reduce the chance of spyware getting on your new machine but it is impossible to eliminate the risk.

o Install and enable a firewall. There are both software and hardware firewalls. If a firewall didn't come with your computer, you can download a software one for free from www.zonealarm.com.

o Have at least one anti-virus protection program installed and actively scanning your computer, and make sure your anti-virus definitions are up-to-date because new dangerous viruses are released daily. This may involve setting your computer to automatically updates its virus definitions and run antivirus scans daily and making sure to renew your anti-virus software subscription every year.

o Install anti-spyware programs before you even connect to the Internet and make sure their spyware definitions are updated automatically and regularly.

• Trust your instincts and look for patterns. If your abuser knows too much about things you’ve only told people via email or instant messenger, there may be spyware on your computer. If you think you’re being monitored by an abuser, you probably are.

Can’t I just “clear” and “delete” my history or trail?
• It is not possible to clear the traces on the computer, especially since Spyware will record all of your attempts to clear your many computer histories. There are literally hundreds of histories hidden in the computer. Also, an abuser may become suspicious and escalate control if he/she has been monitoring your computer history and activities for a while and then one day sees empty histories.

• Spyware records everything you do on the computer or device, and then records all your attempts to delete your computer activities. Sometimes, Spyware is impossible to detect without a forensic examination of your hard drive or unless you know the password and keycode your abuser uses to view screenshots of your computer activities.

• Attempting to clear your histories, trying to find whether Spyware is installed on your computer, or reaching out for help through a domestic violence webpage could be dangerous on a computer that your stalker or abuser is monitoring.

TIPS FOR ORGANIZATIONS THAT ASSIST VICTIMS

Post a Safety Alert on every page of your Website

• Posting a clear, but brief safety alert can make victims aware of risks. (Example: “Your computer activities might be impossible to erase. If someone might be monitoring you, please use a safer computer or call a hotline for more information.)

Take steps to increase your organization's data security.

• Organizations should protect any personally identifiable information collected about a victim since any data leaks or breaches could be fatal. For safety reasons, we recommend that organizations not store confidential or personally-identifiable information about a victim on any computer that is connected to the Internet. Without an internet connection, there is significantly less risk that an abuser will hack in and access your organization's data, or, that a virus will infect your computer and automatically emailing confidential files out to others.

• It is important to have organizational policies that address electronic and paper information practices including who can or can't access certain data, and the secure disposal of confidential papers, computer hard drives, and other electronic media (i.e. external or USB hard drives) that contain victim data. For a data security checklist see: http://nnedv.org/SafetyNetDocs.
Carefully consider computer safety issues before contemplating providing services via the Internet

• Know the facts! 60-80% of computers are infected with viruses, adware, or other malware which can compromise the safety of both the victim/survivor and your agency’s computers. (www.pewinternet.org)

• Know that you cannot guarantee the safety and/or security of the computer of every person who uses your services. Provide upfront and complete disclosures to service users about safety, confidentiality and capacity issues so they can make realistic and informed choices about use.

• Provide information about the technology, confidentiality and security limits of online service provision, including disparities in access to technology varied internet speeds and internet connection outages.

• Discuss in your organization the potential harm that could come to victims if an abuser is monitoring a victim’s entire escape plan that the victim shares through online service provision.
Use Firewalls and keep Anti-Virus & Anti-Spyware Definitions Updated

• As always, updated protection software is the first line of defense against Malware and Adware. However, these programs offer limited protections against surveillance spyware, since monitoring software can appear to be a legitimate product and might not be flagged by these programs. Regardless of the precautions a user takes, spyware allows an abuser to monitor computer and Internet activities and discover a victim’s efforts to escape or access help.

Secure your Computers

• Make sure all of your agency’s computers require strong alphanumeric passwords to log in. Each user should have a different password, and they should not use the name of your organization, your address, or any similar information.

• If you have computers that are for public use, consider setting them so that users cannot download software.

TIPS FOR PARENTS

• After educating yourself about the Internet and computers, have a conversation with your children about the Internet and its benefits and risks. Together, come up with a set of Internet safety rules for your family. If your children take part in creating the rules, they will be more likely to follow them.

• Keep the family computer in a public space like the family room or living room. If your children know that you could walk past at any moment, they’re much less likely to break your agreed upon rules.

• If you choose to use Parental Monitoring Software: TELL your child that you will be using it and explain why.

Building trust and respect around computer use is extremely important, so that your children will feel comfortable coming to you if an issue or problem does arise. Also look for one that displays an icon somewhere on the screen while in use. The icon will help children remember that they’re being watched and encourage them to follow your Internet safety rules.

By:
© 2007 NNEDV Safety Net Project [Revised 2008]

Web: nnedv.org/safetynet 􀁹 Email: safetynet [at] nnedv.org 􀁹 Phone: 202-543-5566



terça-feira, 1 de maio de 2012

VAMOS TER UMA OUTRA GUERRA? OLHA QUEM FALA!

ESCREVO ISTO POR TI, PARA QUE TODO O MUNDO SAIBA QUE TE AMO!
NO TOPO DESTE "BLOG" PODEM ENCONTRAR O MEU ENDERECO DE EMAIL. TODOS OS MEUS PRESTIMOS FICARAO A DISPOSICAO DA MINHA PATRIA AMADA - COM UMA UNICA CONDICAO: 

QUANDO A GUERRA ACABAR, QUE SE PROCEDA, INCONDICIONALMENTE, A DEVOLUCAO DO PODER AO PARTIDO P.A.I.G.C., QUE FOI QUEM GANHOU A LEGITIMIDADE POPULAR PARA O SEU EXERCICIO E DENTRO DOS TRAMITES PRECONIZADOS PELA CONSTITUICAO DA REPUBLICA.

SUBSCREVO, NA SUA TOTALIDADE, TANTO AS RECOMENDACOES DO CONSELHO DE SEGURANCA DA O.N.U. COMO DA PROPRIA UNIAO AFRICANA E SUBSEQUENTEMENTE, DA C.E.D.E.A.O.. TODAVIA, ESTA PRECIPITACAO A CONFLITO ARMADO DENTRO DO TERRITORIO DA GUINE-BISSAU, SERA INTOLERAVEL - ALIAS, COMO JA TIVE OPORTUNIDADE DE MENCIONAR...

VOCES ESTAO SENDO UM POUCO TEIMOSOS POR AINDA ASSIM NAO SE TEREM PROCEDIDO. POREM, PERANTE UMA GUERRA, QUE NO MEU ENTENDER SERA GRATUITA, NAO HESITAREI EM ME ALINHAR DO VOSSO LADO - CONTRA GAFANHOTOS E SAM-MEL-MELS! 

OLHA QUEM FALA!

QUANDO SE TRATA DA REPUBLICA DA GUINE-BISSAU, TODAS AS FORMAS DE AMEACAS SAO POSSIVEIS E TODOS OS INCAPAZES E COBARDES SE TORNAM VALENTES, GRANDES DEFENSORES DE DIREITOS HUMANOS E INTELIGENTES DIRIGENTES DA SENDA INTERNACIONAL. 
FORAM ESSES MESMOS DIRIGENTES, QUE APESAR DE PREVISIVEIS NAO CONSEGUIRAM EVITAR TANTO A GUERRA COMO O MASSACRE DE MILHARES DE CIVIS NO CHAO DE COSTA DO MARFIN. VAI E VEM, VAI E VEM QUE GIRA E VOLTA, DEU-SE A GUERRA MESMO A FRENTE DE SEUS OLHOS E MOSTRARAM-SE IMPOTENTES NAO APENAS PARA A CONTER COMO EM EVITAR QUE O PIOR ACONTECESSE: OS MASSACRES E MILHARES DE REFUGIADOS SEM QUAISQUER ASSISTENCIA DURANTE MESES... 
ISTO ACONTECEU NAO OBSTANTE, A IMPORTANTE ATENCAO DO ENGENHEIRO ANTONIO GUTERRES NA RECTA FINAL DESSE CONFLITO!

NA SIRIA, AS TENDAS E LATRINAS JA SE ENCONTRAVAM PRONTAS PARA NA EVENTUALIDADE DE HAVEREM PESSOAS DESLOCADAS... NENHUM HOMEM E MUITO MENOS UMA CRIANCA FICOU A MERCE DA MAE NATUREZA!

LEIA ISTO:
http://blufondam.blogspot.co.uk/2010/12/africa-negra-economia-e-politica.html

ENTAO DIGAM LA S. EXCELENCIAS

HAVERAO PLANOS PARA ASSISTENCIA AS PESSOAS DUARANTE O PERIODO EM QUE DURAR A VOSSA GUERRA? 

ESTA AUSENCIA DE CONSIDERACOES AO NOSSO GLORIOSO POVO E CONSEQUENCIA DO FRACO NIVEL DE PERFIS DOS NOSSOS PROPRIOS POLITICOS E DIRIGENTES... NAO POSSO CULPAR OS SENHORES!

ESTE PROBLEMA E NOSSO E QUAISQUER QUE SEJAM AS SOLUCOES FUTURAS  TERAO DE CONTAR COM A INCLUSAO DE TODOS OS PONTOS QUE NESTE MOMENTO SEPARAM AS PARTES NOMEADAMENTE, AS ILEGALIDADES CONSTITUCIONAIS, JUSTICA E UMA MINICIOSA PROCURADORIA EM TORNO DE PATRIMONIOS USURPADOS AO PROPRIO ESTADO DA GUINE-BISSAU!
TEM QUE SAIR DAQUI UM COMPROMISSO MUITO FORTE E PASSIVEL DE DEIXAR BEM CLARO AS IRREVERSIBILIDADES DO AMBIENTE POLITICO E QUADRO JUDICIARIO  PRECEDENTES. 

MAS TAMBEM NAO CONSIGO COMPREENDER O FATO DESSE ELENCO DO SUPREMO TRIBUNAL DA JUSTICA SE MANTER INCOMODADO E A PASSEAR AS RUAS DE BISSAU, QUANDO SE SABE QUE TEM UMA IMPORTANTISSIMA CONTRIBUICAO PARA AS COMPLICADAS SITUACOES PORQUE TEM PASSADO E PASSA O NOSSO MARTIRIZADO POVO DESDE 2005 - NAO ENTENDO NADA!

Blufondam
PREPARADO PARA O DER E VIER, PORQUE AI QUERO ACABAR OS RESTOS DOS MEUS DIAS - EM PAZ E JUNTO DOS MEUS!!!

domingo, 29 de abril de 2012

ISTO NAO NOS ORGULHA!

Rapazinhos de Africa Ocidental
LAMENTO A INCLUSAO DO BISPO DE BISSAU NESTA CAMINHADA EM DIRECAO A GAMBIA!


ORA, SE O NOSSO VIZINHO ESTA COM PROBLEMAS, O NORMAL SERIA BATER-SE-LHE A PORTA E PERGUNTAR SOBRE O QUE SE PASSA - AJUDANDO NO QUE FOR PRECISO E DENTRO DOS LIMITES DAS NOSSAS CAPACIDADES...


VERGONHOSA, TAL COMO FOI A DISCUSSAO DA RECONCILIACAO NACIONAL EM DAKAR, NO SENEGAL, HA MENOS DE UM ANO A ESTA PARTE...


ESTADISTAS SEM SENTIDO DE ESTADO, POR AUSENCIAS DE PERFIS E COMPETENCIAS NA SELECAO E NO DESEMPENHO DESSAS FUNCOES.


ESSAS ATITUDES TORNA-VOS EM "RAPAZES GOVERNANTES" DENTRE POLITICOS E GOVERNANTES DA AFRICA OCIDENTAL!


ISTO, NAO NOS ORGULHA ENQUANTO GUINEENSES!


Blufondam
Exigindo respeito aos guineenses!


sexta-feira, 27 de abril de 2012

OS POVOS CIGANO , CURDO E PALESTINIANO PRECISAM DE UM PEDACO DE TERRITORIO COM INDEPENDENCIA ENQUANTO POVOS BEM IDENTIFICADOS!!!

"PEIXE NO MAR NAO TEM CONSCIENCIA DE QUE ESTA MOLHADO PELA SIMPLES RAZAO DE NUNCA TER ESTADO SECO!"


O POVO CIGANO:


ISTO ACONTECEU ONTEM, 26/04/2012, NA SERVIA:


"AS PESSOAS VIERAM ATE NOS, CHORANDO E PERGUNTANDO O QUE FARAO?"
http://www.em.com.br/app/noticia/internacional/2012/04/26/interna_internacional,291228/policia-servia-desmantela-favela-e-expulsa-ciganos.shtml

 Atualmente, cerca de 500 mil ciganos, conhecidos como roma, vivem na Sérvia. Eles representam 7% da população e frequentemente enfrentam ameaças da polícia e de nacionalistas sérvios.

O POVO CURDO:

Batalhas, genocídios, grupos terroristas e uma luta constante pela independência são parte da história deste povo, que tem 27 milhões de despatriados.




http://guiadoestudante.abril.com.br/estudar/historia/curdos-conflito-nao-tem-fim-434540.shtml


O POVO PALESTINIANO:


Entre a decisão de partilha e o dia 15 de Maio de 1948, dia oficial do fim do mandato britânico e a declaração do Estado de Israel, houve uma verdadeira guerra de limpeza étnica que foi relatada historicamente por inúmeros escritores e pensadores.


http://www.mppm-palestina.org/index.php/opiniao/72-61-anos-de-nakba




ANDAMOS A BRINCAR COM O NOSSO TERRITORIO E GENTES QUE NOS VISITAM - OS NOSSOS HOSPEDES!!!
PENSE NISTO!


Blufondam

quarta-feira, 11 de abril de 2012

MEU ANIVERSARIO

Gostaria de estar bem pertinho de ti, amparar-te!... As minhas prenda e revelacao :)!

Hoje e o dia do meu aniversario :) :)...

Quero mimos!!!

Tenho saudades do meu ninho!!!

Forca Guine-Bissau, Portugal e claro Reino Unidol!

A minha gratidao e incomensuravel :)!

OBRIGADO!

domingo, 12 de fevereiro de 2012

WOULD YOU MIND POSTING ME A LETTER!



Africa, Emerging Civilizations In Sub-Sahara Africa
Various Authors
Edited By: R. A. Guisepi
Date:        2001


Native Cultures In Sub-Sahara Africa


Introduction

By A.D. 1200, the process of civilization was approaching global
dimensions. At the same time that Europe, Asia, and the Middle East were
experiencing dynamic cultural growth during the late medieval period,
sub-Sahara Africa and the New World were undergoing similar changes. Indeed,
both regions had developed high civilizations before the European impact of
the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries.

African and American civilizations were each distinctive, although
generally similar to those in Eurasia. In all three areas, flourishing
agriculture supported expanding populations, large cities, highly skilled
crafts, expanding trade, complex social orders, and developing states. The
basic culture of sub-Sahara Africa evolved mainly from its own traditions,
while imported Eurasian culture, such as Islam, was relatively superficial.
American civilizations were even more original, having developed in complete
isolation from the Old World.

The most noteworthy native American civilizations were those of the Mayas
in Yucatan and Guatemala, the Aztecs in central Mexico, and the Incas in Peru.
The Mayas are especially famous for their mathematics, their solar calendar,
and their writing system, still largely undeciphered. The Aztecs and Incas
conquered large populations and governed large states. Each civilization
produced distinctive art, religion, values, and customs, some of which have
become part of the Latin American heritage. Even today, Latin American artists
often take their themes from these traditions.

African civilizations before the sixteenth century compared favorably
with those in Europe. Ethiopia, in East Africa, was already flourishing while
the Roman Empire was disintegrating. In the tenth century, and possibly two
centuries earlier, East African cities were trading by sea with Persia and
India. Shortly after, the Kingdom of Ghana rose in the western Sudan. After
about A.D. 1200, when European states were becoming centralized monarchies,
comparable kingdoms were rising in sub-Sahara Africa, particularly in regions
drained by the Niger, Congo, and Zambesi rivers. Europeans arriving after the
1400s found well-organized governments and societies bound by strong
traditions.

Native Cultures In Sub-Sahara Africa

As late as the fifteenth century, cultures in sub-Sahara Africa were
still somewhat distinct from the states, which were relatively new and often
shaped by foreign influences among the ruling minorities. Most sub-Saharan
Africans, even those living in powerful states, still held firmly to old
loyalties associated with lineage, village, and religion. Because this respect
for tradition was so typical of all these societies, we can understand them
better if we first take note of their ancient cultural foundations.

Geographic, Ethnic, And Historical Backgrounds

Geographic factors help explain sub-Sahara Africa's relatively late
state-building. Climatic changes between 5000 and 1500 B.C., which produced
the Sahara Desert, limited cultural contacts with the Middle East and the
Mediterranean basin. When such contacts became more frequent in the Christian
era, local African traditions were deeply rooted and resistant to change. In
addition, the vast space open to migration south of the Sahara decreased
conflict over land, thereby lessening what had been a significant stimulus in
the formation of many early Eurasian states. This factor, too, helps account
for delayed political development.

Although most Americans have traditionally thought of sub-Sahara Africa
as an immense jungle, more than half of the area comprises grassy plains,
known as savanna. The northern savanna, sometimes called the Sudan, stretches
across the continent, just south of the Sahara. Other patches of savanna are
interspersed among the mountains of East Africa, and another belt of grassland
runs east and west across the southern continent, north of the Kalahari
Desert. Between the northern and southern savannas, in the region of the
equator, is jungle. Heavy rainfall here permitted the cultivation of some
nutritious crops, but soils were not very fertile, and the rain forests
produced many dangers, including sleeping sickness, to which both humans and
animals are susceptible. Generally, the most habitable regions have been the
savannas, which have favored transportation and agriculture.

After the Sahara became arid, the most prominent sub-Saharan peoples were
Negroid speakers of diverse but related Bantu languages. Originating in west
central Africa, between the savanna and the forests, the Bantu began migrating
after about 1000 B.C. For centuries, they moved south and east, ultimately
spreading along the east coast. By A.D. 1000, they had reached central Natal,
in what is now the Republic of South Africa. During their migrations, the
Bantu absorbed or displaced other Negroid peoples of eastern and southern
Africa, driving pygmies, Bushmen, and Khoisan-speaking pastoralists into the
southern jungle, the Kalahari Desert, or the extreme southwestern savanna.
Thus Bantu migrants provided most of sub-Sahara Africa with a common cultural
identity.

The Bantu migrations were closely related to agriculture and iron-working
in a continuous reciprocal process. Developing agriculture expanded Bantu
populations; iron tools and weapons provided the means to acquire new lands;
and the resulting migrations spread both technologies through the whole
sub-Sahara region.

Until recently, most scholars believed that early Bantu peoples acquired
agriculture from the upper Nile, via the northern savanna. More recent
linguistic and archeological investigations suggest that plant domestication
began independently in Ethiopia, the central Sudan, and the upper Niger,
centuries before the Sahara became a desert. Regardless of which theory is
correct, it is clear that a number of native crops, most notably bulrush
millet and sorghum, were cultivated in the western savannah by 2000 B.C. These
were diffused south to the original Bantu homelands, where they were augmented
by African yams.

The vitality of early Bantu agrarian society is well illustrated by the
Nok culture, which flourished in central Nigeria after 1000 B.C. Its skilled
gardeners provided economic support for great artists, who produced beautiful
terracotta (baked clay) sculpture. Later, as the Bantu moved east and south,
leaving the forest, they improved their gardening techniques and their food
stocks by adopting Near Eastern grains and plantains. They also began herding
cattle, sheep, and goats.

With the Bantu migrations, iron-working diffused rapidly through
sub-Sahara Africa. This revolution, which had recently stirred all Eurasian
civilizations, was brought from Egypt to Nubia in the seventh century B.C. It
appeared in the western Sudan at about the same time, apparently brought south
across the Sahara by Berbers, in contact with Phoenician or Carthaginian
traders. Iron was produced in the Nok culture by 500 B.C., and iron-working
was known to the earliest Bantu migrants, who ultimately brought it down the
east coast beyond the Zambezi by the fifth century A.D. African ironmasters
became very proficient and were highly respected. In some areas of
West-Central Africa, their craft assumed such ritualistic significance that
their furnaces were located in secluded places. After about A.D. 900, during
the second iron age, African furnaces were capable of generating higher
temperatures than those in Europe before the 1700s. By then, Bantu craftsmen
were producing high quality implements, as well as beautiful jewelry in copper
and gold.

This later era brought a climax in social evolution. Between 1300 and
1500, for example, the Bantu population increased from 21 to 30 million
people. ^1 Trade also expanded significantly, not only within sub-Sahara
Africa but also with the Mediterranean basin and other Eurasian areas. Rising
commerce encouraged the growth of cities and the organization of large states.
Such changes were most typical of the western Sudan and East Africa, which
combined native African and non-African cultures. But even in the Bantu
hinterlands, where foreign influences were nonexistent or only indirect,
cities appeared and strong kingdoms emerged. In their institutions and values,
these proto-civilizations were predominantly African.

[Footnote 1: Colin McEvedy and Richard Jones, Atlas of World Population
History (New York: Penguin, 1978), pp. 238-259.]

[See Bantu Migrations]

The General Culture Pattern

Although Bantu-speaking societies were remarkably diverse, their
institutions, values, and aesthetic styles reflected a common pattern.
Usually, authority was strongest in the village, where it was exercised by
elders of extended families (lineages), who claimed descent from a great
ancestor. Both custom and religion supported this system. Traditional rules
governed an individual's social functions and activities, which were often
performed within his or her age group. Respect for the community was
paramount, speculative innovation was suspect, and selfish behavior was
discouraged or punished. Political authority beyond the village was most
effective where it depended upon these local loyalties. Kings based their
right to rule on descent from divine ancestors but exercised such rights
within the limits of customary law.

Sub-Saharan economies, outside of the Sudan, Ethiopia, and the east
coast, were based largely upon simple agriculture without plows and draft
animals, although a primitive irrigation was in evidence. Pastoralism was
common throughout the savannas, particularly among seminomadic peoples,
including some Bantu-speakers. Most of the basic handicraft industries were
well developed, including spinning, weaving pottery-making, carpentry, and
metal-working. Using relatively crude methods, African miners procured iron,
copper, and gold ores. Highly skilled craftsmen sought to protect their
secrets by organizing their families into tightly knit groups. Trade was
usually a function of the crafts, although specialized merchants and trading
societies were often present in the cities. Generally, these economies
depended upon individual skills, employed within community and family
traditions.

The kinship principle was fundamental to social organization throughout
sub-Sahara Africa. Loyalties to the clans, each comprising all members of an
extended family, living and dead, were more compelling than class interests,
even in the cities. Sometimes, clans were combined in more artificial tribal
systems. Tribal chiefs were often hereditary, but most were also confirmed by
clan elders, who were all presumed to be at least distantly blood-related.
Because tribes and lineages were older than the villages, the latter were
often divided into separate kinship groups. Grouping individuals of different
lineages into age-sets, such as children, apprentice warriors, and elders,
helped alleviate divisiveness. Secret societies, including members drawn from
mature age groups, also united lineages and encouraged loyalty to village or
tribal communities.

Kinship societies were typical; but many changed as they experienced
productive economies, property relationships, and increasingly prevalent
warfare. In the process, ancient matrilineal clans, with descent traced
through women, gave way gradually to patrilineal groups, with men in control.
The change was reflected in marriage customs, where the traditional dowry,
supplied by the wife's family, was replaced by "bride-price," paid by the
prospective husband. This enforced the idea that wives are valuable property,
to be protected and used for economic gain. Within patrilineal societies, a
minority of male elders governed, while women did most of the work, including
agricultural labor. Such practices, however, do not prove the complete demise
of matriarchal values, many of which lingered on. There were instances where
wives still dominated their husbands, demanding gifts when they produced
children and going back to their families when at odds with their spouses.

The confusion of male and female roles is perhaps best illustrated in
Bantu political institutions. Most states were headed by kings, but
matrilineal descent was quite common in royal lines. This could involve
complex relationships, resulting from the effort to reconcile male royal
authority with the traditional practice of matrilineal succession. To solve
this problem, the heir apparent was sometimes a nephew of the queen and a son
of her oldest brother. In another scenario, where kings followed the common
practice of marrying their sisters, the relationship may not have been sexual
but merely symbolic, permitting women to share royal power in nominal
patrilineal systems. There were also numerous examples of queens who held
supreme authority, with or without a consort. This was not typical, but even
in states where male supremacy was most pronounced, women were often powers
behind the thrones. The king's mother, the queen, or both usually advised the
monarch, particularly on matters pertaining to women and economic
organization. On occasion, women also served as councilors or officials; they
were often priests; and in a few instances, they fought as soldiers.

The newer patrilineal political systems developed slowly but directly
from older kinship structures. Although many Bantu-speaking societies remained
"stateless," some developed kingdoms from tribal bases. Monarchs were at first
tribal chiefs, some of whom managed to conquer or otherwise unite other
tribes. Kings generally carried on the traditions of the lineages, claiming
descent from divine ancestors who lived in a half-mythical "dreamtime" of the
distant past, when they had brought a message from the gods, led their blood
brothers on a great migration, or found land to settle. Kings were considered
semidivine, but their actual powers were limited by traditional ceremony and
law. Their rule depended upon support from lineage chiefs, village headmen,
and secret societies. Some later kings appointed their own officials, but
these were usually selected from local leaders.

The most abiding part of the sub-Saharan African heritage was its value
system, rather than its social or political institutions. Supporting such
institutions were customary beliefs which shaped all aspects of life. Most
common to these beliefs was a profound awareness of human interdependence.
Appreciation for community and law, mingled in primitive superstitions and
intuitive insights, found expression in hundreds of oral myths and stories,
known to Africans from the Niger to the Limpopo. The rich Bantu heritage in
art and music reflected the same communal perspectives. Such values have been
common to tribal societies everywhere, but nowhere else have they endured so
tenaciously into advanced stages of civilization.

Religion touched every phase of human experience in sub-Sahara Africa.
Specific beliefs varied from tribe to tribe, but some general tenets were
common. Most Bantu-speaking peoples believed that the dead continued to
influence the lives of their survivors; indeed, the ancestors were considered
to remain in spirit, eliciting respect and concern from the living, who might
welcome ancestors at meals or appease them when they were angry. Sub-Saharan
Africans also recognized many spirits identified with natural forces, both
benign and dangerous. Most of these societies also believed in a supreme being
as the highest power, the source of all excellence and virtue but far removed
from human understanding.

Sub-Saharan Africans were remarkably skilled and sensitive artists,
particularly in sculpture. Ancient sculptors carved wood, ivory, or soapstone
and cast in bronze, as well as working with baked clay. The famous bronze
statuary of Benin, climaxing a long development in Nigeria, has been compared
in craftsmanship and aesthetic sensitivity with the best work of the European
Renaissance. Statuary and sculptured architectural decorations were often used
to record historical events. Despite its characteristic realism, black African
sculpture also symbolized religious themes.

Symbolism, religious and otherwise, was also typical of African music,
especially of drum rhythms and dance. Like law and religion, music was a part
of everyday life. Bantu songs recounted real life experiences such as hunting,
planting, cattle trading, courtship, and the adventures of famous heroes.
Unlike musical events in Europe or contemporary America, where the performing
artist plays to an audience, all individuals present tended to participate.
Exceptions were mostly to be found in such states as Mali and Axum, where
professional musicians were kept at royal courts, according to customs
prevalent in North Africa or the Middle East. African audiences in the
traditional Bantu societies usually became involved by clapping or dancing.
Nothing could better illustrate the prevailing adherence to communal values.

Representative Bantu States

The ancient common culture pattern was well illustrated by a number of
emerging Bantu states in the late medieval period. They include Zimbabwe and
Mutapa in contemporary Zimbabwe; Kongo, which straddled the great river in the
southwest; and Benin, near the mouth of the Niger. The Mossi and Yoruba
states, which arose in the Niger backcountry, were typical of numerous less
powerful Bantu polities.

Upon arriving in East Africa at the opening of the sixteenth century, the
Portuguese found the Kingdom of Mutapa controlling 700 miles of the upper
Zambezi. They learned from Mutapan oral tradition about two recent kings who
had conquered an empire between the Zambezi and the Limpopo. The last
conqueror had moved his capital north to the Zambezi, but his successors still
revered the ancient stone ruins of the original capital at Zimbabwe in the
southern highlands. Great Zimbabwe, which reached its peak of development
between 1250 and 1450, is the most impressive among hundreds of stone ruins,
dating from the same era in that region. Its great buildings, extending over
sixty acres, included a palace capable of housing a thousand servants and a
temple with walls ten feet thick and twenty feet high. Labor for such projects
was supported by a flourishing gold trade with the coastal cities, continued
later by Mutapa. Without written records, scholars cannot precisely describe
the Zimbabwe polity, but Portuguese accounts of Mutapa provide some indication
of what the parent civilization was like.

The royal capital of Mutapa contained a palace complex within a wooden
palisade. Here, in addition to the king's quarters, were those for the queens
and the royal pages, who were young hostages from subject peoples, sent to
serve at the Mutapan court. The royal household also included the king's
personal aides, such as the captain of the guard, the king's pharmacist, the
head musician, and the doorkeeper. The most powerful officials, however, were
the nine "wives of the king." Of these, the top ranking "wife" was the king's
sister, who was in charge of foreign affairs. Only one queen, who ranked third
in the hierarchy, was a true wife. The others were chief ministers and
regional governors, with their own estates, vassals, and revenues. Some were
not even women, but all were related to the dynasty by symbolic marriage ties,
a practice evidently carried over from a past when all the ministers were
women. Another sign of an earlier female emphasis was a military contingent of
women, who played a decisive part in the election of kings. This
tradition-bound bureaucracy and its related lineages imposed practical limits
upon the king, despite his recognized divinity.

Another notable kingdom was Kongo, located near the mouth of the Congo
River. It was formed in the fourteenth century when a petty northern prince
named Wene led a migration into the south, married into the local ruling
family, and began acquiring vassals through conquest and voluntary submission
of local rulers. A typical Bantu hero, Wene took the title of ManiKongo (lord
of the Kongo). His successors governed a realm which united six former states
between the coast and Stanley Pool.

By the time the Portuguese arrived in the 1400s, Kongo had already
developed a bureaucratic monarchy. The king had a paid bodyguard and a central
government, collecting taxes in copper and cloth, which served as currency in
regular trade between the coast and the interior. Appointed governors and
district officials enforced authority in the six provinces. In the late
fifteenth century, the whole system was based upon innumerable agricultural
villages, which were still organized in the old matrilineal lineages but
governed by brothers and nephews. Wives and daughters did most of the work in
the fields.

North of Kongo, on the forested coast of southern Nigeria, was Benin, a
prosperous and powerful kingdom two centuries before the Portuguese arrived.
Unlike Kongo, it had grown wealthy from its merchants' overland trade with the
Sudan, although it did not become Muslim or import Sudanese culture. Among
Benin's greatest rulers was Ewuare, who killed his rival and took the throne
in 1440. He was remembered as a powerful magician and healer but was more
famous as a conqueror of 200 towns, extending Benin's boundaries to the Niger
and into the Yoruba hinterlands.

The kings of Benin, known as Obas, lived in a huge palace, protected by a
surrounding maze of courtyards. They maintained large, well-trained armies.
Aiding the king was a council, comprised of hereditary officials who were
royal family members. Government outside of the capital, Benin City, was
largely in the hands of town and village chiefs, also related to the ruling
dynasty.

In addition to Benin, other states in the Niger region profited from
contacts with the Sudan but continued developing their Bantu culture.
Commerce, traditionally monopolized by women at the local level, had become
thriving long-distance trade by the fifteenth century, when tribal towns north
and west of Benin were heavily involved in military struggles for commercial
dominance. The kings (Alafins) of Oyo, one Yoruba state, began building a
tributary empire. It functioned, before 1500, as a complex mix of palace
councils, subkings, secret societies, and lineage organizations at the village
level. Later, in the sixteenth century, Oyo would become a strong rival of
Benin.

The Bantu heritage was equally striking among the Mossi states of the
upper Volta, on the borders of Mali and Songhai in the western Sudan. By the
fifteenth century, the five original Mossi kingdoms were united in a
federation of subkings, each recognizing one ruler as overlord. This potentate
headed a government of sixteen ministries, his palace housed hundreds of
servants, and his army included efficient cavalry units. The Mossi polity
resembled its greater Muslim neighbors, except for its religion and its
orientation toward the outside world. In these respects, its rulers were loyal
to the spirit of their ancestral religion and their customary law.

All of the states described here were closer to their native traditions
than were the older and more complex polities in the Sudan, in Ethiopia, and
along the East Coast. Most of these latter states espoused Islam, while
Ethiopia had been Christian since the fourth century. In addition, they
imported non-African languages, writing systems, art, and cultural traditions.
Because they developed earlier, they have often been regarded as sources of
civilization spreading into the African interior. Such a process did take
place, as is most evident on the borders of the northern savanna. Yet all
innovations were integrated into older African cultures. This was true of all
sub-Saharan states, but especially true of emerging southern Bantu monarchies
after A.D. 1000.


Hybrid Civilizations Of Sub-Sahara Africa

While Bantu states in the forests and the southern highlands were
evolving toward centralized monarchies, other sub-Saharan cultures were
maturing into complex but varied civilizations. The western Sudan produced
great empires, comparing in reputation with Eurasian imperial states.
Ethiopia, a compact Christian monarchy, developed a unique identity while
relatively isolated in the Abyssinian highlands. The Swahili sultanates on the
east coast were independent cities, prospering in sea trade with Asia. But
despite their differences, these societies were more economically advanced,
more complex in political organization, more literate, and more aware of the
larger world than those of the southern Bantu. Indeed, they were hybrid
civilizations, with a layer of non-African values and institutions
superimposed upon their native cultural foundations.

Early Contacts With Non-African Civilizations

Outside influences reached sub-Sahara Africa from ancient times, despite
its relative isolation. Egypt expanded southward into the eastern Sudan before
2000 B.C.; Phoenicians, in their day, circumnavigated the continent, trading
along the way. Later, Carthaginian galleys sailed the northwest coast, and
still later, Romans reached the east coast through the Red Sea. They also
traded across the Sahara, particularly after the second century A.D., when
they brought Asian camels to North Africa. Following the Roman era, Eurasian
influences reached Africa via the upper Nile, the ports of western Asia, and
the rapidly developing caravan trade of the western Sahara.

The major source of Egyptian influence upon sub-Sahara Africa was the
black Nubian Kingdom of Kush. Once an Egyptian province, Kush became
independent in the eighth century B.C. Its kings governed Egypt briefly before
the 600s; after being driven from the north, they continued to rule the upper
Nile, perpetuating an Africanized version of Egyptian culture, complete with
pyramids. During the early Christian era, their capital city at Meroe became a
famous iron-smelting center. Kush conducted a lively trade with Egypt, the
central Sudan, Ethiopia, and Arabia. An Axumite invasion destroyed the kingdom
in the fourth century, but two surviving Nubian states maintained Christianity
and the traditional civilization until they were overrun by Arabs in the
fourteenth and fifteenth centuries.

A second foreign influence upon sub-Sahara Africa came from pre-Islamic
Arabs, who crossed the Red Sea and colonized the Eritrean coast around 1000
B.C. They interbred with native Africans to form a state called Axum, which
rose on the Somali coast of Ethiopia. After destroying Kush in 350 B.C., Axum
extended its control into the highlands. It brought many Semitic influences to
northeast Africa, including some aspects of Judaism and a distinctive
language. It also accepted Coptic Christianity from Egypt, maintaining close
contacts with Near Eastern centers until it was isolated by the rise of Islam
in the seventh century.

Of all the early foreign influences in sub-Sahara Africa, the Islamic
religion was undoubtedly the most significant. Originating in western Arabia,
it spread rapidly through the Near East and North Africa in the seventh
century. From Morocco, Tunisia, and Egypt, it was carried into the northern
savanna by traders, missionaries, and conquerors. It also followed Arab and
Persian sea trade from the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf to East Africa. With
Islam came monotheism, Arabic language and writing, Arabic and Persian
literature, coined money, and bureaucratic government. Islam was considerably
modified by African customs, but it became a potent force, particularly in the
western Sudan.

Ethiopia

Among the later sub-Saharan states, Ethiopia was the oldest. Historians
usually record its beginnings with Axum's conquest of Kush, but Ethiopian
monarchs traced their lineage back to the Hebrew King Solomon and the Queen of
Sheba, or Sabea, an ancient state in southwestern Arabia. Whether this is
true, Axum's strong roots in Near Eastern culture were strengthened after its
conversion to Christianity. Although predominantly black, its people were
ethnically, culturally, and linguistically different from the Bantu.

In the sixth century, the country was wealthy and powerful. Cities
boasted stone houses and beautiful churches; the king wore luxurious robes and
rode in chariots pulled by elephants. Axum also produced its own distinctive
gold coins and conducted trade throughout the Near East, transacting business
in Greek or in its own official language, known as Ge'ez.

This picture changed drastically after Muslims conquered North Africa in
the seventh century. They soon drove the Axumites from the Red Sea coast and
into the highlands of the interior, where they fought to preserve their
independence, their Christianity, and their culture. This struggle became
particularly intense after the tenth century, when the country was weakened by
a revolt, led by a reputedly Jewish queen in the southwest who played off
Muslims against Christians, killed the Ethiopian king in battle, seized the
throne, and reigned for forty years, persecuting Ethiopian Christians
throughout the land. In the twelfth century, another rebellious local queen
helped further Muslim influence. By the fifteenth century, however, Ethiopian
monarchs had united local tribes, Christian and Muslim, into a tributary
empire, whose monarch termed himself "King of Kings."

The outstanding emperor of the era was Zara Yakob (1434-1468), who
achieved internal unity for Ethiopia and security among its warlike Muslim
neighbors, most of whom he defeated and reduced to vassalage. He is best
remembered as a stern reformer who stamped out heresy, strengthened the
Ethiopian Church, and reorganized the bureaucracy. He also established
tentative relations with the pope, seeking European aid against his Muslim
enemies. Unpopular at the time, this policy later led to alliance with the
Portuguese.

Zara Yakob held sway over a loosely controlled tributary state, but
within his immediate environs he ruled as an absolute autocrat, surrounded by
hundreds of courtiers and servants. He was aided by two chief ministers, two
chief justices, a secretary, and a chaplain. The "Negus" (Emperor), as head of
the Church, appointed the bishops and took an active part in church
administration. Although he traveled constantly about the country, accompanied
by his enormous retinue, the Negus allowed the public to see him only on rare
occasions, when he appeared on a high platform, specially built for the
purpose.

Like the Middle Eastern states, to which it was closely related in
history and culture, Ethiopia developed a male-centered society. According to
Ethiopian legend, the first king, a son of the Queen of Sheba, swore at his
coronation that Ethiopia would never be ruled by a woman. The king, though a
Christian, usually had three wives and numerous concubines, who were kept
secluded in their own quarters of the household. They had few political
duties. Although the queen mothers were honored, and one might occasionally
serve as regent for a young son, their political influence, like that of the
royal wives, usually had to be exerted through some sympathic male of status.
As among Arabs and Jews, this influence was often beneficial and decisive,
despite its unofficial nature. On the other hand it could be quite disruptive
when it resulted in palace intrigues and conspiracies among royal mothers,
maneuvering to gain the throne for their sons.

The economy of medieval Ethiopia was based primarily upon local
agriculture. Axum's extensive commerce declined after the eighth century, as
it shifted gradually from the sea to land trade with the interior.
Nevertheless, the country enjoyed moderate prosperity, as evidenced by
bountiful public revenues and lavish expenditures in church-building. The
Emperor received tribute and taxes, mostly in goods, which were stored in
warehouses. In addition, the monarch's daily needs were largely supplied by
local rulers or officials, who entertained his entourage as it moved from
place to place.

Ethiopia acquired a rich cultural heritage, drawn mainly from the Middle
East. Its traditions, even before the Christian era, were generated from the
religious lore of Palestine and Arabia. Consequently, its most enduring
cultural expressions were its churches, the most famous of which are the
beautiful and awe-inspiring rock-hewn cathedrals of Roha, built after the
eleventh century in the reign of the legendary Emperor Lalibela, who was
declared a saint by the Ethiopian Church. These huge architectural projects
compare favorably with similar temples in India for their ingenious
engineering. This religious accent was typical of all scholarly and aesthetic
pursuits, particularly in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, when
Ethiopians produced innumerable biblical translations, theological treatises,
biographies of saints, historical chronicles, illuminated manuscripts, and
mural paintings.

Swahili Cities In East Africa

From ancient times the East African coast was involved in long-range
maritime trade. Phoenician, Greek, Roman, and Arab traders regularly operated
as far south as Zanzibar before Bantu migrants arrived in early Christian
times. The rise of Islam furthered commercial expansion in the Indian Ocean,
but East Africa was not much affected until the twelfth century, when a wave
of Arab and Persian commercial colonists begantransforming primitive trading
settlements into flourishing Muslim commercial cities.

During the peak period of Swahili civilization, between 1200 and 1500,
the east coast was studded with thirty-seven city-states along the 1500 miles
between Mogadishu in the north and Sofala in the south. Among the best known
were Malindi, Mombasa, and Kilwa. Most Swahili cities were on islands,
protected by sea from the foreign Bantu world of the mainland. Common people
in the cities were from that world, either as descendants or migrants. Free
intermarriage between a Middle Eastern elite and native inhabitants had
produced a diverse racial mixture, described later by the Portuguese as
varying from black through tawny to light, according to locality and social
class. Swahili, the language of these cities, was mainly Bantu, but included
some Arabic, Persian, and Hindu. Islam was usually the official religion,
although shaped by local beliefs and customs. Generally, the culture was a
synthesis of African and Middle Eastern, with the latter more pronounced among
the upper classes.

The Swahili cities were independent, with some temporary exceptions. At
times, one city might exact tribute from its neighbors, or a number of states
might federate in time of war. But commercial competition made such
cooperation difficult to maintain and curtailed political expansion toward the
Bantu interior, where kingdoms like Mutapa played one coastal city against
another. Within the cities, governments were usually headed by monarchs
(sultans), assisted by merchant councils, holy men, or royal relatives.
Although the sultans were typical Muslim rulers in most respects, the common
order of succession was drawn from the Bantu matrilineal tradition. When a
sultan died at Kilwa, Pate, or numerous other cities, the throne passed to one
of the head queen's brothers.

As the Muslim Middle East became the commercial center of Eurasia,
maritime trade of the Swahili cities figured largely in the commercial
development of three continents. Kilwa became the major port for gold sent
through Egypt to Europe. Iron ore, exported from Malindi and Mombasa, supplied
the furnaces of India. A number of Chinese expeditions visited the coast in
the early 1400s (see ch. 8), exchanging porcelain for typical African
products, including exotic animals such as ostriches, zebras, and giraffes.

In this era of their greatest prosperity, the Swahili cities built stone
mosques and palaces, adorning their buildings with gold, ivory, and other
wealth from nearly every major port in southern Asia. Kilwa impressed the
famous Muslim scholar-traveler Ibn Batuta as the most beautiful and
well-constructed city he had seen anywhere. Archeological excavations
revealing the ruins of enormous palaces, great mansions, elaborate mosques,
arched walkways, town squares, and public fountains have confirmed this
evaluation. The main palace at Kilwa, built on the edge of an ocean cliff,
contained over 100 rooms, as well as an eight-sided bathing pool in one of its
many courtyards.

The Swahili cities produced their own characteristic culture. Their
beautiful architecture, borrowed from Arabia and Persia, was matched by a
Swahili literature, written in an Arabic script. Poems, ballads, and letters
in Swahili reflected the perspectives of a Muslim urban elite. Most common
people, however, were only indifferent converts to Islam, which they accepted
while holding to their own orally expressed traditional beliefs. A few miles
inland from the cities, the lives of Bantu villagers were relatively untouched
by the ways of the coastal cities.

Empires Of The Western Sudan

More than the Swahili cities and Ethiopia, the great states of the
western Sudan were based upon native African traditions. The old Bantu ways
remained very strong, particularly among women, who outwardly accepted the
imported Muslim religion but retained their attachment to old customs and
freedoms. Yet despite this pull of the past, the area was much affected by
outside contacts, particularly those arising from trans-Saharan trade with the
Mediterranean lands to the north.

Following the third century, when camels were first employed in this
trade, large caravans, sometimes including 10,000 pack animals, made regular
trips across the dangerous desert, carrying North African salt in exchange for
West African gold. To these great expeditions, the Niger River offered a
secure watering and resting place. Here were people who knew the savanna and
could easily find the still distant gold-producing areas. Thus Africans living
near the great bend of the river came into control of the lucrative gold and
salt trade. Many traders were women, particularly those operating in local
markets, where rising prosperity and accumulating wealth increased the traffic
in foods and luxury goods.

Ghana

The earliest of the kingdoms of the western Sudan was Ghana (not to be
confused with the modern state of the same name). It arose on the upper Niger
during the fourth century as a loose federation of village states, inhabited
by Soninke farmers. According to unconfirmed legends, it was first ruled by a
Berber dynasty, which was overthrown about A.D. 700, when Kaya Maghau led his
kinsmen in an uprising, killed the last white ruler, and established a Soninke
dynasty. Kaya was remembered as a great warrior, who expanded Ghana's
boundaries while furthering trade across the desert.

Ghana reached its peak in the eleventh century. The Arab chronicler
al-Bakri noted in 1067 that the army was 200,000 strong, with many contingents
wearing chain mail. The king, who had not converted to Islam, was considered
divine and able to intercede with the gods. He appointed all officials and
served as supreme judge. When he appeared in public, he was surrounded by
advisors and princes of the empire, along with personal retainers holding gold
swords, horses adorned with gold-cloth blankets, and dogs wearing gold
collars.

Ghana's wealth derived partially from its efficient irrigation
agriculture, but the gold trade was an even more significant factor. The king
claimed every gold nugget coming into the country, leaving ordinary citizens
the right to buy and sell only gold dust. Taxes were levied on the many goods
crossing Ghana's borders. The commercial emphasis is evident in al-Bakri's
description of the capital, Kumbi-Saleh. This was really two towns, some six
miles apart, one occupied by the king and his retinue and the other by foreign
merchants. Even the merchants' town had twelve mosques, two-storied stone
houses, and public squares. This, along with the Muslim legalists and
theologians who lived in Kumbi-Saleh, suggests a prevailing Islamic influence,
although the king publicly consulted priests of the traditional cults.

Ghana's decline and eclipse in the early thirteenth century remains
something of a mystery. One Muslim account of an Almoravid invasion from
Morocco, around 1080, has been seriously questioned by recent scholarship,
without completely resolving the question. Later kings apparently accepted
Islam, but this may have been voluntary. At any rate, Ghana remained intact
but weakening for another hundred years. In 1203, its rule was ended by the
uprising of a petty vassal, who was later overthrown by Sundiata, founder of
Mali.

Mali

After defeating and killing the tyrant who had subjugated his kinsmen and
murdered his brothers, Sundiata took over Ghana and gained control of the
desert gold trade. Thus began a new ruling dynasty in the western Sudan.
Sundiata's immediate descendants converted to Islam, which aided their further
conquests, until by the fourteenth century, Malian kings ruled over more than
forty million people and 400 towns in the entire Sudan-Sahel region of West
Africa, which stretched from beyond the upper Niger to the Atlantic.

The kingdom was at the height of its power and prosperity during the
reign of Mansa (King) Musa (1312-1337). Musa was perhaps the first African
ruler to be known throughout the civilized world of western Asia and Europe.
He was a great soldier, consolidating his control over a vast domain. He also
encouraged the growth of Islam in his lands, importing Muslim scholars and
architects to promote learning, build mosques, and implement his political
authority. His fame abroad resulted mainly from his pilgrimage to Mecca in
1324, when his thousands of retainers and generous gifts completely amazed his
hosts along the way. Gold expended then in Cairo caused ruinous Egyptian
inflation for a generation.

Mansa Musa ruled over a state more efficiently organized than the
relatively crude European kingdoms of the time. On the north and northeast
were loosely held tributary kingdoms of diverse populations, including some
Berbers. To the south were more closely controlled tributary states, under
resident viceroys, appointed by the Mansa. Elsewhere, particularly in the
cities, such as Timbuktu, provincial administrators governed directly in the
king's name and at his pleasure. The central government included ministries
forfinance, justice, agriculture, and foreign relations.

Ibn Batuta visited Mali in 1352 and left a detailed description of the
country. He was most impressed by its law and justice, which guaranteed that
no man "need fear brigands, thieves, or ravishers" anywhere in the Mansa's
vast domain. Batuta praised the king's devotion to Islam but was disappointed
that so many Malians were not Muslim. He noted also that the unveiled women
were most attractive but lacking in humility. He was astounded that they might
take lovers without arousing their husbands' jealousy and might have male
friends, with whom they regularly discoursed on learned subjects. Batuta was
describing the city of Walata, where he found women better educated and
enjoying more freedom that in other countries he had visited. ^2 He might have
said the same about a number of Sudanese trading cities, including Adoghast,
Kumi Saleh, Gao, and Timbuktu.

[Footnote 2: Rhoda Hoff, Africa: Adventures in Eyewitness History (New York:
A. Walck, 1963), pp. 10-13.]

After Mansa Musa's death, his successors found the large empire
increasingly difficult to govern. They were plagued by poor communications,
the diversity of cultures, and the competition of rising states, whose rulers
were also converting to Islam. One of the rebellious states was Songhai,
farther down the Niger. Before the end of the fourteenth century it had won
its independence. Within another century it had conquered Mali.

Other Sudanese States

Songhai reached its zenith during the reigns of Sonni Ali (1464-1492) and
Askia Muhammed (1493-1528). Sonni Ali captured Timbuktu in 1468, while
conquering most of Mali, When he died, after thirty years of ruthless military
dictatorship, Askia Muhammed set about reorganizing the whole empire. He
created central ministries, an appointed provincial administration, a
professional army, and an enlarged fleet of canoes, which constantly patroled
the Niger. He also reformed taxation, instituted a systems of weights and
measures, and regularized judicial procedures. During his reign, the Sankore
mosque in Timbuktu became so renowned as a center of learning that a
contemporary traveler noted more profit being made from bookselling than from
any other trade. When Askia Muhammed died, Songhai was respected throughout
the western Islamic world.

Another rising Savanna state after the fourteenth century was
Kanem-Bornu, located near Lake Chad in the central Sudan. By the eleventh
century, the parent kingdom of Kanem was a prosperous contemporary of Ghana.
After being overrun by invaders and then reconquered by earlier migrants to
Bornu in the west, it emerged a second time after 1400. As did those of Mali,
the women of Kanem-Bornu enjoyed a high social status. From the tenth century,
they had held important government positions; the king's mother was an
official advisor along with his chief wife and eldest sister. The kings
commanded a large army, which they used to extend their territories. Like the
Mansas of Mali, they attempted, with some success, to impose their Islamic
religion upon their people. In the fifteenth century, they developed close
relations with pro-Turkish regimes in North Africa and the Middle East, thus
increasing their trade and their military support.

Farther west, between Lake Chad and the Niger, were the seven independent
Hausa kingdoms, each organized as a city-state. Before the eleventh century,
Hausa kings were hampered by a lingering matrilineal system, in which each
monarch shared power with a queen mother and other female councilors. Later,
as the cities began prospering in trans-Saharan trade, and as commercial
rivalry increased, their weaknesses became more evident. This situation
changed some after the fourteenth century, when most of the kings accepted
Islam, using it to free them from old matriarchal restraints and prepare
literate officials for governing the villages. The new Muslim age of
despotism, competition, and warfare decisively weakened the traditional status
of Hausa women. One king of Kano, in the late 1400s, even had his wives and
thousand concubines secluded, as was the custom in the Muslim Middle East.

All the Sudanese states, despite their significance in the trans-Saharan
trade, were relatively weak and insecure. Their Islamic culture, which
generated literary and architectural achievements, was a thin veneer over a
traditional African way of life. Royal administrators were hard pressed to
control lineage chiefs and self-sustaining villages. Ultimately, Sudanese
polities depended upon able kings; inefficient monarchs invariably brought
collapse.
Fonte: International World History website